Now’s that very excellent time of year when many of us get back a (hopefully) glorious tax return and are burdened with deciding what to splurge on (because lord knows we’re not disciplined enough to save it like we ought to). A nice bottle of wine or Champagne is always an option, or perhaps a fancy dinner out, but what about adding some luxury to your cooking routine via, expensive-to-buy yet easy-to-use truffles! While there are many different kinds of truffles, only a handful are safe for human consumption. Of those edible options, the most prized species are European white truffles and black winter truffles, and it’s important to know the difference so you can use them in the best possible ways.

Where exactly are they from?

White truffles, a.k.a. Tuber magnatum, hail from Italy’s Piedmont region (think northwest corner of the boot, bordering France and Switzerland) and parts of Croatia, while the black truffle (formally known as Tuber melanosporum) grows in France. Even though truffles have also been discovered and cultivated all over the world, from New Zealand to the Pacific Northwest, these two European varieties have held onto their reputations as the most transcendent and flavorful. That may be due to the fact that Europe is a uniquely qualified breeding ground for this fussy fungus. Truffles only grow around the roots of certain types of trees and require a particular climate to thrive. Furthermore, they like a chalky soil with a specific pH level—a terrain that’s native to Europe but that often has to be manipulated elsewhere.

When are they harvested?

White truffle season spans September through December, hitting its peak in October and November. The season for black winter truffles is later, from December to February. Other species of black truffles, which are still used in cooking, though thought to be less luxurious, are harvested during the summer.

Which is more expensive?

This title goes to the “white diamond,” which costs hundreds of dollars per ounce. In fact, we even found white truffles for sale on Amazon! If you’re willing to drop $195, you can snag one ounce of Italian white truffle (shipping and truffle slicer included).

On the other hand, you can get yourself an ounce of black truffle for a cool $79. (Or these winter black French truffles for $106.38 per ounce, plus shipping.)

Why the price difference?

White truffles are more fragrant and flavorful. In fact, they’re so aromatic that they’re almost always shaved raw on top of dishes, a scene that will soon play out in high-end restaurants all over the world. On the other hand, some light cooking can help coax the maximum flavor out of black truffles.

Which one is used to make truffle oil?

Neither! We hate to break it to you, but there’s nothing natural about this now-ubiquitous condiment. Instead, it’s made by combining olive oil with a chemical compound that’s designed to mimic the smell of truffles. So sadly, if the scent of truffle oil conjures images of Italian families roaming the countryside with their truffle-sniffing dogs, think again. The more accurate image is chemists in a lab!

The bad news about cooking with real truffles is that it’s going to cost you. But the good news is that it’s relatively easy since it’s best to pair truffles with simple dishes that are willing to give up the spotlight.